Modern Georgian uses the Mkhedruli script, which is also the writing system for Mingrelian, Svan, and sometimes Laz.
The Mkhedruli letters correspond to the sounds of the spoken language, which makes it simple and economical. It also has no parallel in any other language and, therefore, is one of the 14 existing alphabets in the world.
Mkhedruli had 41 letters, but 8 of them are no longer used. There are no capital letters in Mkhedruli. Sometimes ordinary letters are scaled to function as capitals.
Georgian has up to 17 known dialects, which can be divided into two main groups: an eastern and a western group.
The structure of sentences in Georgian is subject-verb-object. But this is not as strict as in, for example, English. The order subject-object-verb can be found in Georgian.
There are no grammatical genders and no articles in Georgian. It has seven noun cases: nominative, ergative, dative, genitive, instrumental, adverbial and vocative.
The Georgian verbal system is quite complex. Linguists prefer to use the term “screeve” instead of terms such as “tense”, “aspect”, “mood”, to distinguish between different time frames and moods of the verbal system. A screeve is a set of six verb forms inflected for person and number.
Verbs are traditionally divided into four classes: transitive verbs, intransitive verbs, verbs with no transitive counterparts (medial verbs) and indirect verbs.
Georgian has an abundant word derivation system. Many words are constructed by adding prefixes and suffixes to the root. For example, from the root kart, the words such as Kartveli (a Georgian person), Kartuli (the Georgian language) and Sakartvelo (Georgia) can be derived.